Should Public Private Partnerships (PPP) be preferred over public provision or privatization?

By Shan Yahampath

Building and maintaining public goods and property such as highways, bridges & tunnels, air and sea ports are some of the main responsibilities of a government. Selecting and prioritizing infrastructure development projects, hiring competent private contractors and making decisions on funding these projects are some critical functions a government should perform in this regard. Public debts or taxes, privatization and PPTs are the three basic ways in which public goods and property can be made accessible for citizens of a particular country.

The concept of PPP came into being when some countries such as the United Kingdom, and the USA started to encourage private sector participation in public service areas that were not conventionally easy to privatize such as highways, schools and hospitals. This created a new opportunity for long term contracts between the state and private companies to provide infrastructure through bundling financing, construction, and operation (and maintenance) within a single firm. The development of PPP introduced a new approach whereby a single private firm finances and builds a project and then becomes responsible for the operation and maintenance of the installations on par with agreed service/performance standards.

A PPP can be considered as an agreement through which the government contracts a private company to build or improve, maintain and operate infrastructure for an extended length of time (e.g. 25 to 30 years) in exchange for revenue during the period of the contract. In the case of highways, revenue mainly comes from users whereas in investments such as public hospitals the government makes periodic payments as users are not charged. But in most cases the concessionaire is remunerated with a combination of user fees and government periodic payments, such as shadow tolls in the case of highways. At the end of the contract period the assets are handed over to the government. Privatization of a government property or service is different from PPPs as the infrastructure is permanently transferred to a private entity.

Figure 1- The basic structure and the flow of work of a PPP project.

PPP in Europe

PPSs in Europe had a steady fivefold growth on an annual basis from 1990 till 2007.

Figure 2 – The PPP investments in Europe (1990 – 2011) in billion euros

Figure 3- The 10 countries in Europe with the most PPP investments.

Country Total Investment

1990 – 2006 (In Million Euros)

Belgium 2,112
France 7,670
Germany 5,658
Greece 7,600
Hungary 5,294
Italy 7,269
Netherlands 3,339
Portugal 11,254
Spain 24,886
United Kingdom 11,2429

Source: Blanc – Brude, Goldsmith and Valila (2007)

Figure 4- Toll type for PPP roads, bridges, and tunnels in Europe, 1990 – 2007

Country Contract


Real Toll Shadow Toll Total
Austria 0 2 0 2
Finland 2 0 0 2
France 0 8 0 8
Germany 0 8 0 8
Greece 0 6 0 6
Hungary 0 5 0 5
Ireland 0 8 0 8
Italy 0 7 0 7
Latvia 1 0 0 1
Netherlands 2 0 1 3
Norway 0 3 0 3
Poland 0 1 1 2
Portugal 0 6 11 17
Spain 0 31 14 45
United Kingdom 4 3 20 27
Total 9 88 47 144

Source: Kappeler, A. and Nemoz, M., (2010)

The United States has been lagging behind many European and developing countries in terms of PPP investments. However, they have achieved a remarkable growth on an annual basis between 1998 and 2007 and during the three-year period of 2008-2010. The majority of investments are in transport sector as per the available data. The entire PPP sector has attracted approximately $23 billion USD between 1998 and 2011.

PPP investments in low and middle-income countries

As it is shown in the figure given below the investments in PPP grew at an annual rate of about 28 percent between 1990 and 1997. This growth however, was negatively impacted by the East Asian crisis and up until 2003 the investments were very low. Between 2003 and 2010 the investments had a steady upward growth reaching $180 billion USD in 2010. Surprisingly the global financial crisis of 2009 hardly made an impact on the upward trend in middle and low-income countries.

Figure 5- PPP Investments (Billion USD)

Figure 6- PPP Investment in Developing Countries, 1990 – 2008

U. S. dollars (In Millions)
Country Energy Telecommunications Transport Water & Sewage Total
Argentina 29,540 29,328 14094 8,176 81,137
Brazil 75,993 107,554 32142 4576 220,265
China 37339 14,518 47449 8427 107,732
India 45,868 52,898 24766 331 123,864
Indonesia 15492 24,972 3743 1020 45,228
Malaysia 14313 9596 16552 10441 50,605
Mexico 10753 54068 25374 1675 91,869
Philippines 19268 14280 3478 8071 45,096
Russia 30484 48813 706 2225 82,228
Turkey 12,678 24293 8170 942 46,082

Source: World Bank – PPIAF PPI database

Problems with Public Provision

Governments usually face multiple challenges when providing infrastructure services in any country, be it developed or developing. The challenges range from immediate ones like prioritizing projects among many competitors, ensuring completed projects fulfill their service and performance obligations, maintenance of the infrastructure built, financing the projects to more dire challenges like ensuring neither the public nor the government is overcharged especially in a fee for service model. These challenges are at times made more critical due to sectorial capture by certain leading companies through political connections and corruption. Poor design of government institutions and their employee incompetence leading to cost overruns and delays take an extra toll on public provision.    

Why PPP?

There are both theoretical and pragmatic arguments as to why PPP can be considered favorably by governments to provide infrastructure effectively and efficiently. The Financial Times once claimed that “The boom in PPP is good news for governments with overstretched public finances: many local and national authorities have found themselves siting on toll roads, ports, and airports that they can sell for billions of dollars to fund other public services”.

  1. The most feasible arguments are that PPP can relive budgetary restrictions and release public funds.
  2. Since project financing is private it brings much needed financial discipline with prudence which can lead to gains in efficiency.
  3. PPP bundles construction with operation and maintenance and this can lessen the deterioration of infrastructure such as roads and highways.
  4. PPPs can mimic a competitive market because they are often adjudicated in competitive auctions/bids.
  5. Since the private party is interested in making profits the user fees have to reflect a market price and this may discourage lower fees due to political pressure, overconsumption and wastage of infrastructure.
  6. According to Adam Smith when infrastructure is privately provided and sustained with user fees, a market test filters white elephants.  Smith A (1937)

Good Governance

A mixture of good and bad experiences are present with regard to the real impact of PPP infrastructure projects in the world. Countries such as China, Chile, Brazil and the UK provide ample examples of such experiences. With a sufficient learning curve these countries have learned that getting a single state institution to manage all aspects of the production and delivery cycle: the planning, tendering, construction, maintenance, supervision, contract enforcement and conflict resolution can lead to possible conflict of interest. Because, when every aspect is within the same scope inefficiency and corruption become inevitable. This is also due to an inherent issue in the government sector as to how departments and ministries are organized. Usually these are organized by products and not by functions. For instance, building schools and educating children fall under the same ministry. There should be an independent central body to carry out cost benefit analysis and this may reduce the undue political interference. Ensuring concessionaire’s adherence to compliances throughout the lifecycle is also a must. The experiences of the countries mentioned above are such that, the terms and conditions of most of their projects had to be renegotiated as a result of oversights of the government and the private firms. The government can always impose regulatory framework while the concessionaire has no choice due to a sunk investment. These kinds of issues can be avoided through proper planning during the initial negotiation period. It is vital to have a proper mechanism and a central body to handle conflict resolution as well. This may lead to project delays but the ultimate benefits will be passed on to the society and its people whose user fee payments and tax rupees are financing these projects.

Long Way to Go – Capable Political Leaders

Leaders are of different kinds. This is probably why James MacGregor Burns once said Leadership was one of the most observed and the least understood phenomenon on earth. Among different kinds of leaders, political leaders are the least researched and studied.

In my opinion, the best way to categorize political leaders is based on their time orientation. Certain leaders glorify the past. They always talk about what they had and what they have lost. They always tend to compare what is not there now as opposed to what was there in the past. It is evident that they struggle to let go of the past. On the other hand some leaders are more futuristic and tend to look into the future with a more optimistic approach. Yet another set of political leaders focus on ‘the now’ where they neither focus on the future nor glorify the past. It is safe to say that they have a myopic view of the future and do not glorify the past. Apart from these three kinds of leaders, it would not be an exaggeration to point out that there is another set of leaders who does not do anything at all.

If we carefully observe and analyze the types of leaders we as the general public have elected and sent to the parliament to represent us, all these four kinds of leaders can be found there discussing the issues that matter to us and taking decisions on our behalf.

Within the course of seven decades of post-independence, for about three decades we were fighting a bloody ethnic war. In that sense we have no past to glorify. Because what we have achieved is nothing more than pained hearts and souls. With due respect to the leaders who ended the bloody war it is time to make use of the freedom won rather than wasting time and energy in glorifying the past without forgetting the fact that we have a lot to catch up on as a country. When we compare ourselves with other countries in the region that won their independence and freedom during the same period, they seemed to have progressed much faster than us and have achieved greater economic and social benefits. If we are to blame and point fingers at someone or something, I am sure the leaders who have run the country up to now should be our first choice.

We as a country and an economic unit have an enormous amount of issues thanks to our past politicians and the decisions they have made. Some examples of such issues are the heaps of foreign loans taken at staggering commercial rates without proper planning and prioritization, which requires immediate corrective action. Moreover there are certain areas that have progressive problems which can lead to economic, social and political catastrophes at a national level. What is not working should be fixed and that is an indisputable fact. However, there should be an approach to transform the prevailing situation into a much larger economically beneficial situation, which is future oriented and filled with opportunities. There are ample examples around us to learn and benchmark ourselves against, starting from South Korea, Singapore, and Malaysia.

If we carefully study the countries that were transformed from once being poor economies to current economic giants in the global arena, their success stories can always be attributed to a leader or a set of leaders. These leaders had something that other leaders did not have or they did something that other leaders did not do. There must be an innate quality in these leaders that made them do something different and unique. Either they had a strong political will with a futuristic view or they knew that, what was required had to be done without giving into political pressure. After all, they possessed the much-needed skills to get things done and make things happen.

At the moment, Sri Lanka is undergoing a transformation or at least we have realized that the country needs a political and economic overhaul. The question is how capable the political leaders are at convincing their electorate that these changes are a must even if they are not politically popular? Do they know what our immediate critical issues are at a macro level? Can they get out of micro level, individual issue based relationship management and focus more on macro level issues at a national level? Can they demonstrate the much-needed behavioral competencies in managing their relationships with much wider and dynamic communities? How informed are they of the international changes that are taking place and changing the dynamics of international trade and commerce? How enthusiastic are they to embrace innovative and disruptive technologies that may present unprecedented growth opportunities or eradicate the traditional opportunities for growth? Do all these leaders share the same mental model about the country’s development and the challenges faced by the economy?

Let us try to understand the broader issues faced by Sri Lanka as a country and see what kind of competencies that these so called politicians should possess if they are to contribute to the overall successful transformation of the country.

  1. 1. The need to increase economic growthThis can be considered the most pressing issue that we need to battle as a country. It seems that a consistent economic growth with a minimum trade deficit can be the solution to most of the issues that are there today. It is not an exaggeration to say that we should increase our exports and manage our imports by restricting and discouraging unnecessary imports with the objective of retaining foreign reserves. Every political leader should have a clear understanding as to how every single activity done by their respective portfolios is connected to achieving the much needed economic growth, be it short term or long term. In this context it is important that every parliamentarian takes off his or her micro level thinking hats and embrace a macro level approach to their work. This essentially requires getting rid of traditional cause and effectthinking and adapting a systems thinking approach. Otherwise, history will repeat itself and there is a greater possibility that todays solutions can become tomorrows problems. What is popular is not always effective. They should be willing to make tough calls for the betterment of the country in the long run.

  1. 2. Reducing corruptionCorruption has escalated to a whole new level in the recent past. Traditional methods of bribery and taking commissions have been modernized leading to a number of whitecollar crimes. The question is whether the existing rules and regulations pertaining to bribery and corruption are strong enough to prevent such national level corruption. Corruption should be discouraged, eradicated and penalized at both micro and macro levels across the country.

  1. 3. Enhancing transparencyIn a country where literacy rate is above 90%, people tend to read, write and comprehend on going matters to a greater extent. Some people may ask questions as to how different development projects were done, on what basis they were awarded, on what conditions the loans were taken etc.… whilst some may not be interested at all. Just by enacting the act of right to information, transparency will not be upheld nor promoted. Both the general public and the bureaucrats should be empowered to look for and share what is relevant and important without causing unnecessary troubles to the development process. Transparency goes hand in hand with reducing corruption. The greater the magnitude of transparency the lesser the room for corruption. Whilst the culture of secrecy should be discouraged along with the unwillingness of bureaucrats to share such information, enabling efficient processes to facilitate this objective is also paramount.

1.4. Improving social wellbeingImproving social wellbeing should go beyond the physical and the mental health of the general public. As a country, we spend a considerable amount of tax rupees on physical health and it seems that efforts to address mental health has taken a back seat. The efforts or objectives of improving social wellbeing should necessitate much larger macro level benefits across the country without focusing only on underprivileged groups. In fact it should go beyond the general public. It means, that whilst the whole economy creates equal opportunities for the general public it also ensures a decrease in income inequality. These efforts should focus on creating a fair playing field for cooperates to carry out their profit oriented ventures without undue influences.

With regard to the four-macro level challenges clarified above, every parliamentarian, whether s/he is in the government or in the opposition, should possess a minimum of the following competencies for the sake of the overall development of the country. All of them should make a conscious paradigm shift from being bogged down in their own political ideology towards a more open minded perspective by keeping their eyes focused on the changes that are happening internationally.

Insights into the interests of the general public

  1. Committing to general public as a whole, regardless of political ideology or political party they support. This should come with the understanding that in a democratic society people appoint leaders of their choice to get what they need and want. At the end of the day all these needs and wants are similar, therefore treating them equally is a must even if they have not voted for you or your political party.

  1. In a country where open-economy has been instrumental as the engine of growth, the private sector should be truly empowered to live up to its full potential. Therefore, creating a business friendly economic and political environment across the island is a must. This includes enacting policies and programs to encourage entrepreneurship and the creation of new ventures.

  1. The need to eradicate corruption has been identified as a macro level challenge but it has to be implemented and monitored at the level of individual leaders as the  general public tends to think that if corruption is eradicated the benefits can be passed on to them in the form of social welfare.

  1. No economy can grow without getting its own people to consume more. Domestic consumption can only increase, if purchasing power is increased in terms of per capita income on a yearly basis. This can only be achieved if leaders take the standards of living of the general public into serious consideration. Every parliamentarian, especially those who hold ministerial portfolios should understand as to how their respective programs result in raising the standards of living of the general public.

Flawless Execution

  1. Collective aspirations of individuals are strong and powerful. They make and break governments. They bring parties and individuals to power and ousted them when their aspirations are not made a reality. The vision of a government should necessarily be based on what people think is right. Moreover it should definitely meet their overall expectations. Any government or political party can come up with appealing development programs but nothing will be achieved unless they are implemented. Transforming the overall ambitions of individuals in to the vision of the government can only become a reality if individual parliamentarians execute their respective responsibilities with a strong political will.

  1. As a leader, collective aspirations are made a reality through flawless execution as mentioned above. No leader can do a single micro level activity on his/her own. In order to achieve this, they should be able to get things done and make things happen through the cooperation and support of others, be it bureaucratic public sector or private sector. All in all, 99% of any kind of success depends on the flawless execution of plans and activities.

Objective Savvy

  1. Within the four macro level challenges identified earlier in this article, there are many other challenges that require time and energy, rational and emotional contemplation in order to come up with robust solutions. Certain issues regardless of them being at a macro or a micro level, have been pestering the country for ages. Those affected by these issues say that no one has taken their issues seriously. Those who hold office should be agile in addressing these issues and responsive when the issues are brought to their attention. In order to better manage such issues, every parliamentarian should be objective savvy so that they can quantify the impact and prioritize a course of action accordingly.

  1. In order to enable growth and achieve the vision of the government, certain policy decisions should be made. This requires changes to the existing regulations and reform in order to meet modern day requirements. Decisiveness in such policy decisions and reforms is a must, in order not to give in to political and social pressures that are coming from multiple parties because what is right is not always popular.

  1. It is easier said than done. Only fruits fall from trees without an effort. Everything else has to be made possible. Leaders should be proactive in looking for the reasons as to why things are not happening the way they are supposed to happen. While the articulation of a vision and its flawless execution are critical, leaders should also be proactive in looking for obstacles that may hinder progress. Be it red tapes, process or policies, if seen as an obstacle it should be proactively eliminated to facilitate execution.

  1. We have learnt that insignificant daily activities can lead to significant outcomes. Therefore relentless focus in achieving respective objectives is key regardless of the changes that may occur.

Engaging Others

Politicians are often blamed for being surrounded by the wrong people. These so called ‘wrong’ supporters are supposed to be the wrong crowd to have around due to various reasons. They may be politically misguided due to the fact that they were supporting a different political ideology or regime or they used to criticize the current government when they were supporting the opposition. They may be known for corruption or various other wrong doings in the past. Even though the prevailing electoral system encourages being surrounded by the wrong crowd, it is detrimental that political leaders surround themselves with the right sort of people who are capable. When you say ‘the right people’ they should be politically accurate, believing in an effective political ideology and should have faith in an effective political vision. Moreover they should be generally accepted by the majority of the general public. Just being right does not necessarily mean that they are capable. It is very important that the people who are appointed to hold different leadership positions in public enterprises, different ministries and authorities are capable of executing tasks and getting things done by keeping the overall political vision in mind. It is extremely important to have a group of people who are not only capable of executing plans but who also have faith in the political vision of the government.

If change were an easy thing to achieve, things would have been much easier all over the world. The amount of resistance and political pressure that are coming from different parties would have been minimal if it were the case. It is very much important for a leader to be able to influence the key stakeholders across the society at large. Be it religious leaders, social leaders, labour unions and various other social groups who have received a sense of acceptance among the general public. Unless properly managed, these stakeholders can sabotage or can cause significant delays for much awaited political efforts to develop the country as a whole.   Therefore, it is important to maintain regular briefings and educate them on and about the bigger picture in terms of the overall socio economic impact.

Holding broad support

The ability and the charisma to capture and hold the support of diverse groups both locally and internationally is a key trait that a determined and an effective political leader should possess. However this does not mean using bribes and fake promises to keep a strong hold on his/her supporters and well wishers, nor does this mean giving a packet of rice and a bottle of arrack to get the votes of his/her electorate, rather this simply means the ability to be a leader in the true sense of the word by being fair, honest and transparent as much as possible in his/her dealings and activities. A political leader who is widely supported and loved is supposed to be street smart and know instinctually to get off his/her high horses and approach the people at a grass root level as well as h/she is supposed to be qualified, intelligent, well versed, and literate in English and all the other main languages used locally in order to gain the respect and support of professionals and intellectuals both at a national and an international level.  In order to unite diverse ideologies, different age groups, diverse ethnic groups and socio economic classes in the country, an effective political leader needs to set an example to the general public by treating everyone equally, enacting policies to reduce ethnic, age and gender discrimination. This means reducing favourtism and eradicating unfair practices such as giving prominence to his/her close friends, family or supporters.  Moreover, a sense of clear direction and a high level of transparency, where all of his/her activities are accounted for and carried out in an open manner, will surely increase the support and respect that such a political leader would receive.

All in all, as a nation we have a long way to go in order to be a proud nation led by effective leaders. Such a day is not far from our future only if our leaders are willing and humble enough to look within themselves, accept their weaknesses and be brave enough to empower themselves by equipping themselves with the missing pieces, qualifications and tools. Only then, would we be able to effectively address the challenges that are facing us and be a proud nation led by great leaders.

The trimmed version of the same article can be found here –

Goodbye 2013

Goodbye 2013

The end of the year 2013 is around the corner. Just like any other year, this year too has generated an enormous amount of life lessons. These lessons without a doubt have helped a great deal in understanding what life entails as a result of our day to day dealings. Given below are the five key learnings that have made a profound impact on me as a person who has taken the road less travelled.

Resources vs: resourcefulness

Probably the best lesson learned during last year is this. We are not blessed with all what we want (even what we need for that matter) all the times. One of the obstacles any entrepreneur would face is not having sufficient resources at his/her disposal to make things happen the way he/she wants. We need to learn how to improvise with what we have got. While accepting the fact that one has to have sufficient resources to make things happen and get things done, what matters the most is not resources but how resourceful you are as a person. Being resourceful is all about your psychological strength and your behavioral competencies. Having a big dream and a strong inner drive are two important elements of being resourcefulness in my opinion.

Believe in yourself

Not that we don’t believe in ourselves but at times people around make us doubt in our ability in making things happen. What we need to remember is people interpret your circumstances within their frame of reference. Therefore, not necessarily you should go by what they say or believe in what they say. The worst thing that can happen is you lose faith in you and your ability in making your dreams come through. No matter what don’t stop believing in yourself as long as you know you are doing the right thing. Stand up for yourself when the rest of the world discourages you.

Extra Inch

Some are talking about walking the extra mile. If an extra mile seems too long, start with an inch every day. Pushing ourselves to go out of the comfort zone is easier said than done. But there is nothing in the world that human mind cannot conquer if you set your mind right. Do what you don’t like, walk towards your fears, and keep pushing the envelope every single day. Daily consistent activities lead to excellent results.

Delay gratification

One of the best lessons I have learned long time ago from the book “The Road Less Travelled”. According to the author the root cause of most of human problems is our inability to delay gratification. As an entrepreneur, small wins are a good motivator. Early successes communicate that you have what it takes to become a great success story. Therefore, don’t be complacent with your early success. Don’t rest thinking you have made a quantum leap within a very short time period. Even if you have made a quantum leap, try to sustain it without gratifying yourself early.

Find a Mentor

Some of you may not believe in mentoring but I do. You don’t need to go by traditional definitions of mentoring. And not necessarily you need to have only one mentor. You can have a few mentors to share their accumulated wisdom based on different areas. When you select a mentor don’t just go buy their expertise. Look for someone who is genuinely interested in helping you to realize your true potential. Not necessarily your mentor has to be an old person with gray hair. Your mentor could be one of your peers who is matured enough and with sufficient experience to guide you. If you are an entrepreneur don’t forget to widen your horizon through a network of mentors or personal advisory board. Because, you may be extremely busy pushing things hard day and night with a less social interaction.

Planning your training for 2013

I hear lots of HR practitioners these days are planning their organization’s training for 2013. This is just to remind you that BrainHR has a range of new training courses/programs and will also continue with the popular programs from 2012.

There are two new categories for 2013, offering key business skills training for HR and people managers. While we intend to conduct a number of public programs, all programs can be customized and delivered in-house to ensure relevance for your organization’s business realties and objectives. If you did not receive our training directory, please contact

Given below are the three new categories we offer for 2013.

HR essentials

  1. Internal HR consulting skills – Explore the skills, tools and frameworks that HR professionals require to effectively embrace internal consulting.
  2. Workforce planning essentials – Uses a five step planning model to manage the challenges of planning
  3. Investigating workplace misconduct – Builds skills to assess complaints, gather information and make critical decisions that affect employees.

People Essentials

  1. Managing People performance – Makes the link between performance management and performance development, and reinforce both functions as a key requirement for effective managers
  2. Interviewing skills for line managers – Offers a strategic and informed approach to the interview and selection process

Business Essentials

  1. Presenting with impact – Learning how to clarify your message, manage your emotional state and present powerfully to motivate, influence, entertain and inspire your customers, bosses, co-workers and stakeholders.

Learning Organizations (With Sri Lankan Perspective)

Knowledge Sharing

  1. Introduction

Jack Welch, a world renowned business practitioner and the former chairman and CEO of General Electric’s once had said that an organization’s ability to learn, and translate that learning into action rapidly, is the ultimate competitive advantage. It is accurate to say that most of successful business organizations all over the world have realized the fact that learning is not a destination but an ongoing process that they should be committed if they are to be ahead in their fierce competition in their chosen industries.

The concept of ‘Learning Organizations’ is not new and it has been around for more than two decades. It flourished in the 1990s, stimulated by Peter M. Senge’s The Fifth Discipline and countless other publications, workshops, and websites (Garvin A et el, 2008).    This has resulted in a compelling vision of an organization made up of employees skilled at crafting, acquiring, and transferring knowledge. The whole idea of learning organization is that the employees of such organizations can help their organizations to cultivate tolerance, foster open discussions and think holistically and systematically. Such comprehensive approach would make an organization enable to adapt to the unpredictable more quickly than their competitors could. The concept of learning organization is sometimes confused with the concept of organizational learning. Even though it is assumed that they are synonymous, they are not as they are unique and different concepts in their own rights.

Organizational learning is defined by Easterby –Smith and Araujo (1990) as an ‘efficient procedure to process, interpret and respond to both internal and external information of a predominantly explicit nature (Cited by Armstrong, M 2006).  Rosemary Harrison, an authority in the subject of learning organizations and organizational learning had emphasized that organizational learning is not simply the sum of the learning of individuals and groups across the organization. According to her many studies have confirmed that without effective processes and systems linking individual and organizational learning, the one has no necessary counterpart with the other.

The philosophy underpinning the learning organization concept, as expressed by Garvin (1993), is that learning is an essential ingredient if organizations are to survive; that learning at operational, policy and strategic levels needs to be conscious, continuous and integrated; and that management is responsible for creating an emotional climate in which all staff can learn continuously. (As cited by Armstrong, M 2006)

1.1 Learning Organization defined

Peter M. Senge (1990) who coined the term ‘Learning Organization’ describes a learning organization as one where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free and where people are continually learning how to learn together. Subsequent Senge’s efforts in actualizing the concept of learning organization, there have been many attempts to define what a learning organization is about. Pedler et al (1991) state that a learning organization is one which facilitates the learning of all its members and continually transforms itself. According to Wick and Leon (1995) a learning organization is one that continually improves by rapidly creating and refining its capabilities required for future success. Garvin (1993) defines a learning organization as one which is skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.

2.  Theoretical Aspects of the learning organization

2.1 The Fifth Discipline

The fifth discipline is the first ever structured framework that was introduced by Peter M Senge (1990) in his bestselling book ‘The Fifth Discipline’ which has assisted a number of practitioners to create a learning organization in whatever they do. The five disciplines represents approaches for developing three core learning capabilities of an organization namely fostering aspiration, developing reflective conversation, and understanding complexity.  Working teams being the fundamental learning units in an organization, these are also referred to as core learning capabilities of teams. The five disciplines are categorized under the core learning capabilities as illustrated below.

Figure 2.1: Core Learning Capabilities of Teams – Three Legged Stool

All three core capabilities are important in creating a learning organization as the stool would not stand if any of the three were missing (Senge, M, 1990)

The table given below outlines the three core capabilities of a team and the five disciplines respectively under each core capability.

Table 2.1: Core Capabilities and five disciplines

Core Capability Five Discipline Description
Understanding Complexity System Thinking Whatever happens around us it is not just once incident or event. It is as a result something that has already happened and each event, activity has an influence on the rest, an influence usually hidden from view. You can only understand the system of a rainstorm by contemplating the whole, not any individual part of the pattern. In business we tend to focus on snapshots of isolated parts of the system to get solved. System thinking is a conceptual framework, a body of knowledge and tools that has been developed to make the full patterns clearer, and to help us see how to change them effectively.
Reflective Conversation Mental Models Mental models are deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take actions. Very often, we are not aware of our mental models. It is essential as an organization; the management changes their shared mental models of the company, their markets, and their competitors. This discipline of working with mental models starts with turning the mirror inward; learning to unearth our internal pictures of the world, to bring them to the surface and hold them rigorously to scrutiny.
Dialog/Team learning It is generally accepted that the sum total of individuals should be equal or greater than when it comes to synergy. But this has been the reality in most of organizations. In business the intelligence of teams should exceed the intelligence of individuals and then they develop extraordinary capabilities. When this happens even the individual members grow and develop more rapidly than it could have occurred otherwise.
Aspiration Personal Mastery Mastery means a special level of proficiency. People with a high level of personal mastery are able to consistently realize the results that matter most deeply to them. They do that by becoming committed to their own lifelong learning.

Personal mastery is the discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our personal energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively. This emphasizes the fact that an organization’s commitment and capacity for learning can be no greater than that of its members.

Shared Vision This is the capacity to hold a shared picture of the future an organization seeks to create. It is not easy to think of any organization that has sustained some measure of greatness in the absence of goals, values and missions that become deeply shared throughout the organization.

The practice of shared vision involves the skills of creating a shared picture of the future that fosters genuine commitment and enrollment rather than compliances. In carrying this discipline out, leaders learn the counter-productiveness of trying to dictate a vision, no matter how heartfelt.

Source: Fifth Discipline

2.2 Building Blocks of the Learning Organization

This was made popular by an article published in Harvard Business Review in March, 2008 by the title of ‘Is yours a learning organization’ by David A. Garvin, Amy C. Edmondson, and Francesca Gino. Though this has not yet gained the recognition as a model of the concept of learning organizations this has been used as a tool to assess the depth of learning in an organization and its units all over the world. According to the authors a learning organization is a place where employees excel at creating, acquiring and transferring knowledge and there are three building blocks in such organizations as mentioned below.

  1. Supportive Learning Environment
  2. Concrete Learning Processes and practices
  3. Leadership behavior that reinforce learning

Table 2.2 : Building Blocks of a Learning Organization

Building Block Characteristics Description
Supportive Learning Environment – An environment that supports learning Psychological Safety Employees must be comfortable expressing their thoughts about the work at hand
Appreciation of difference Learning occurs when people become aware of opposing ideas
Openness to new ideas Learning is not simply about correcting mistakes and solving problems. It is also about crafting novel approaches.
Time for reflections Supportive learning environments allow time for a pause in the action and encourage thoughtful review of the organization’s processes.
Concrete Learning processes and practices Experimentation Frequent experiments with new ways of working, new products and service offerings. There is a formal process of conducting and evaluating experiments or new ideas.
Information collection Systematic collection of information on competitors, customers, economic and social trends, customers and best in class organizations.
Analysis Engaging in productive conflict and debate during discussions and seeking dissenting views during discussions. Frequent identification of underlying assumptions that might affect key decisions. Pay attention to different views during discussions.
Education and Training Newly hired employees receive adequate training while experienced employees receiving periodic training and updates, training when switching to a new position, training when new initiatives are launched.
Information Transfer There are forums and meeting with and learning from experts from other departments, teams and divisions, experts from the outside the organization, customers and clients, and suppliers. Regular sharing of information with networks of experts within the organization and quickly and accurately communicates new knowledge to key decision makers. Conducts post audits and after action reviews.
Leadership behavior that reinforce learning

Managers invite input from others in discussions; acknowledge their own limitations with respect to knowledge, information and expertise. Managers ask probing questions, listen attentively, and encourage multiple points of view. Managers provide time, resources, venues for reflecting and improving on past performance.

Source: Adopted from HBR – March, 2008

2.3 Model for learning organizations (MLO) – Author’s concept

MLO is a primary concept of the author which focuses on key main dimensions of learning organizations namely individual learning and organizational learning. The author is in the view that high level of both individual and organizational learning would result in a learning organization which is the preferred status of any organization as far as learning is concerned. The primary concept is illustrated in the figure 2.2 given below.

Figure 2.2: Model for Learning Organizations (MLO)

Personal Mastery Learning organization

  • Autonomy and Purpose
  • System thinking and shares mental models
Knee-jerk reaction Fire-fighting

Source: Author

This model has been developed based on three hypotheses as stated below.

  1. High level or individual learning where low level of organizational learning is facilitated develop personal mastery among individual employee making them experts and subject matter experts in their own areas
  2. High level of individual learning and high level of organizational learning would create a sense of shared purpose and mental models among employees and that will lead them to achieve a sense of autonomy (Empowerment) and system thinking (which goes beyond cause and effect thinking). The availability of these factors essentially creates a learning organization.
  3. High level of organizational learning alone would not result in an effective learning unless it is supported by a strong commitment of individuals in terms of their learning. In such situations organizations would have short term approaches to competition, new product development and customer relationship management on a fire fighting basis without adapting a sustainable approach to managing them.

The commitment of individuals to learning is affected by three factors as mentioned below.

  • Self-awareness – Knowing what one wants in his/her life and what approaches to be adapted in making them a reality
  • Need for achievement (N Ach) – Desire to achieve
  • Need for power (N Pow) – desire to being in control

Similarly, there are three factors that can affect creating effective organizational learning as given below.

  • Supportive Learning Environment
  • Concrete Learning Processes and Procedures
  • Leadership behavior that reinforce learning

3. Key Principles of the learning organization

Miller and Stewart (1999) have proposed six key principles of the learning organization as mentioned below.

  1. Learning and business strategy are closely linked
  2. The organization  consciously learns from business opportunities and threats;
  3. Individuals, groups and the whole organization are not only learning but also learning how to learn;
  4. Information systems and technology serve to support learning rather than control it;
  5. There are well-defined processes for defining, creating and capturing, sharing and acting on knowledge;
  6. These various systems and dimensions are balanced and managed as a whole.

4. The Learning organization and Knowledge Management

The whole concept of learning organization is about developing and sharing knowledge that matters to the organization its long term survival and success. Therefore, having a comprehensive knowledge management system that can capture both tacit and implicit is crucial in creating intelligence and technical know-how which competitors cannot replicate. However, it has been noticed by a number of researches done the subject of learning organization that most of organizations have paid unnecessary attention to knowledge management system instead of creating a holistic learning culture.

5. Learning Organizations in the Sri Lankan Context

The author has carried out a research based on the questionnaire developed by Harvard Business School in assessing the prevailing learning culture of an organization. The questioner has been developed based on the three building blocks of a learning organization in the article of ‘Is yours a learning organization’ published in HBR March, 2008.  The research was done based on a sample of 30 individuals from top performing organizations selected randomly. The participation of HR practitioners has been restricted purposefully in order to ensure the partiality.

Given below is a summary of the findings.

Figure 5.1 : Is yours a learning Organization? Research Findings

Building Blocks and their sub components Scaled Scores
Bottom Quartile Second quartile Third quartile Top quartile
Supportive Learning Environment 20 5 3 2
Concrete Learning process and practices 7 10 8 5
Leadership that reinforces learning 23 3 2 2

Source: Author

Based on the above observations, it is evident that the majority of participants agree on the fact that their organizations have a concrete learning processes and practices in place. Perhaps the physical availability of certain policy documents and web based tools must have helped them to recall the availability of such mechanisms. However, the rest of the two building blocks of learning organizations are not positively perceived by the participants. More than 66% participants do not perceive there is a supportive learning environment within their organizations and 76% of participants do not see that they have a leadership culture that reinforces learning within their organizations.

6. Conclusion

This paper attempted to study and critically review the concept of ‘Learning Organization’ by having a detailed emphasis on both theoretical and pragmatic approaches. There is still a great level of confusion between the concepts of learning organizations and organizational learning as they seem synonymous and yet they are not. Two theoretical approaches were discussed in trying to understand underpinning reasons behind creating a learning organization namely the fifth discipline and the building blocks of a learning organization. The author based on his understanding and the interest of the subject matter has come up with a primary model called ‘Model for learning organizations’ based on three hypotheses. Knowledge management has become a key component of learning organizations and it has been found that an unnecessary amount of attention has been given to knowledge management systems within organizations instead of focusing creating a holistic approach towards creating a learning organization.  A research among thirty participants who are working in the private sector in Sri Lanka was carried out in order to understand the prevailing learning cultures of Sri Lanka and the findings of the same is presented in tabular format.

7. List of reference

  1. Armstrong M (2006), Human Resource Management Practice, Kogan Page Limited; 10th Edition.
  2. Garvin, D A (1993) Building a learning organization, Harvard Business Review, July-August, pp 78-91
  3. Harrison, R (2000) Employee Development, 2nd Edition, IPM, London
  4. Miller, R and Stewart J (1999) Opened University, People Management, pp 42-46
  5. Pedler, M, Burgoyne,  J and Boydell, T (1991) The learning company: A strategy for sustainable development, McGraw-Hill, London
  6. Senge, M (1990), The Fifth Discipline, Random House UK Ltd,
  7. Wick, C W and Leon L S (1995) Creating learning organization: from ideas to action, Human Resource Management Journal